Top Ingredients Used in Weight Loss Supplements

fat burning, weight loss, weight loss supplements, green tea, synephrine

Top Ingredients Used in Weight Loss Supplements  

Weight loss can be a tedious task. At times, exercise and caloric restriction doesn’t seem to be enough to help you shed pounds. Thus, weight loss supplements get hyped up due to claims that they can fill in the weight loss gap where calorie restriction and exercise fall short.

However, there is also ongoing controversy surrounding weight loss supplements and their effectiveness. Weight loss supplements come with their risks, and if abused, they could lead to serious health problems.

This article takes a brief look at the main ingredients in many weight loss supplements marketed today.


What ingredients are used in weight loss supplements?

 

The following list includes ingredients that are often in combinations of weight loss supplements:

Caffeine: Caffeine is a common ingredient in beverages like tea and coffee. It is recognized for its stimulation effects on the brain. As a weight loss supplement, caffeine may help suppress the appetite and reduce one’s tendency to overeat. At the same time, it may temporarily increase the body’s metabolism and promote fat burning, thus aiding in increased calorie burn.

However, too much caffeine can do more harm than good and may cause anxiety, sleeplessness, diarrhea, dizziness, and overstimulation of the central nervous system. It is advised to consume caffeine in moderation.

Green Tea: This tea is rich in potent antioxidants. Green tea contains sufficient amounts of caffeine, enough to provide mild boosting effects on metabolism. However, the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) provides weight loss benefits. EGCG stops the breakdown of norepinephrine, a hormone that helps mobilize fat from the fat cells and brings it into circulation for the body to utilize for energy.

Some studies have revealed EGCG’s may increase the body’s metabolic rate, thus helping burn more calories throughout the day. Green tea has also been shown to regulate cortisol. Regulating cortisol is critical for blood sugar and insulin sensitivity. Remember, a moderate amount of caffeine enhances the efficacy of EGCG, but too much caffeine can mitigate its effects.

There is concern that Green Tea Extract supplements may harm some people because it’s green tea but in a very concentrated form. Consumer Reports advises against the use of Green Tea Extract in pill form.

Taurine: Taurine is an amino acid that possesses many benefits. It is located in the brain, retina, heart, and muscle tissue and has been studied for various reasons, including its potential fat-burning abilities.

In a 2019 study with mice, taurine demonstrated anti-adipogenesis activity in the weight-gain promoting “white” fat. Adipogenesis is the process of building fat cells in the body. 

Taurine may also help reduce body fat by supporting the breakdown of fat and may help enhance fat-burning during exercise. Taurine may also improve sports performance, regulate blood sugar, and protect liver cells. When taken in moderation, it is considered very safe, with no known side effects.

Sesamin: Sesamin is the main polyphenol compound in sesame seeds/oil that may activate a particular receptor in several organs, including the kidneys, heart, muscles, and liver. This receptor is called Peroxisome Proliferator-Activator Receptor Alpha (PPARalpha) or PPAR.

Studies revealed that PPAR plays a role in fat metabolism. When PPAR is activated, the genes responsible for fat burning get stimulated. And the genes responsible for fat storage get reduced.

Additionally, findings from a Japanese study showed that sesamin could also help with fat burning by boosting the fat-burning abilities of the liver and may help the body retain its lean muscle. One word of caution, sesamin could lower the omega-3 fat, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels in the body. Extra supplementation of EPA may be necessary.

L-tyrosine: L-tyrosine is an amino acid essential for synthesizing brain neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine). It has a role in regulating certain glands like the adrenals and the thyroid, which play a vital role in weight management.

Regarding L-tyrosine’s direct role in weight loss, there have been mixed results, as there have been zero studies conducted to test its effect on weight loss. L-tyrosine is not recommended for people with hypertension (high blood pressure).

Green Coffee Bean Extracts: The elements of the coffee bean, extracted before they are roasted, are called green coffee bean extracts. These extracts are rich in chlorogenic content since they do not get exposed to heat. The lack of exposure to heat preserves the antioxidant properties of coffee beans.

In a 2016 study with mice, researchers discovered that chlorogenic content may promote fat catabolism and aid weight loss. It may also help regulate blood sugar as witnessed in a reported 2013 study with human participants. Thus, it may be helpful for people who are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. 

WebMD cautions that very high doses of chlorogenic acid “for a short duration has caused increased plasma homocysteine levels, which may be associated with conditions such as heart disease.

Lower concentrations of chlorogenic acid are in apples, artichoke, carrots, eggplants, grapes, honeysuckle, kiwi fruit, pears, plums, potatoes, and tea.

Coleus Forskohlii: Coleus Forskohlii is an herb that has a significant role in Ayurveda medicine. Studies suggest the role of forskolin, an active ingredient of Coleus Forskohlii, could help with weight loss. 

Forskolin may have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and appetite suppressant effects. The anti-inflammatory qualities of the herb may also ease the symptoms of inflammatory conditions of the bowel.

At the molecular level, forskolin appears to activate an enzyme called adenylate cyclase, which is involved in several natural processes, including weight regulation. Activation of adenylate cyclase results in the release of free fatty acids from cells, allowing the body to burn them.

Synephrine (Bitter Orange): Synephrine is an alkaloid in a few weight loss supplements. According to references, synephrine may help weight loss by blocking specific receptors that stop fat from leaving the fat cells. Synephrine may impede the function of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in fat cells. Alpha-2-receptors in fat cells make it difficult for people to drop “stubborn fat.” 

Synephrine works best when combined with exercise.

Yohimbe Bark Extract (Yohimbine HCI/L): This is an extract from a central African tree. It has specific chemicals that may block alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. Blocking these receptors helps the body burn more fat efficiently.

Yohimbine, the active chemical in the extract, has been prescribed to treat several conditions (e.g., erectile dysfunction) and is also used for weight loss. However, caution is needed with the dosage of this extract, as it may have dangerous effects on one’s heart and blood vessels, resulting in several side effects. In weight loss supplements, it usually goes under Yohimbine HCI or HCL.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine: This amino acid plays a role in transporting fatty acids to muscle cells, where they get used for energy. Low levels of this amino acid lead to the accumulation of unhealthy fatty acids, thereby increasing fat storage in the body. Acetyl-L-carnitine is also known for enhancing insulin sensitivity and improving metabolism, both of which aid weight loss.

Raspberry Ketones: Raspberry Ketones may promote weight loss by increasing lipolysis. Lipolysis is the process of mobilizing fat from the fat cells. This process brings the fat into circulation, where the body can use it for energy.

In a mice study, raspberry ketones were also responsible for inducing fat cells to release adiponectin, a hormone in the fat cells with several functions, including glucose, appetite, and weight regulation. 

It is important to note that the effects of raspberry ketones may not be as significant as the companies who manufacture supplements using them like to claim.

Irvingia Gabonensis (African mango): Irvingia Gabonensis or African mango is a tree that produces fruit nearly identical to mangoes. Its seeds contain the ingredients for potential weight loss as witnessed in a 2009 study with overweight human participants. A 2018 study with human participants suggested this extract may aid in regulating blood glucose and blood cholesterol levels.

Aframomum Melegueta (Grains of Paradise): This seed is a constituent of the ginger family. It is a native West African remedy known to treat diarrhea, stomach aches and helps ease hypertension. Aframomum Melegueta may increase the metabolic rate by stimulating fat burning in brown adipose tissue (i.e., brown fat) as witnessed in a 2013 men study. 

A 2014 study with human participants demonstrated Aframomum Melegueta’s potential to increase caloric burn and reduce body fat. In a 2011 study with mice, Aframomum Melegueta lowered blood glucose levels, potentially having a positive blood sugar regulation effect on the body.

Garcinia Cambogia: This fruit contains Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a substance that could aid weight loss by inhibiting an enzyme called citrate lyase. Citrate lyase has an essential role in fat synthesis (i.e., the process of creating fat). Blocking citrate lyase may reduce the production of new fat in the body. High-quality Garcinia Cambogia products have at least 50-60% HCA.

Sphaeranthus Indicus (flower) and Garcinia Mangostana (herb): When combined, these two compounds may induce weight loss. According to Healthline.com, researchers claim they may aid in weight loss by slowing down the rate at which fat cells multiply, reducing fat cells’ ability to absorb fat from the bloodstream. They may also assist fat cells with burning their fat. Sphaeranthus Indicus may regulate blood glucose levels.

Bacopa Leaf Extract: This extract may boost metabolism and decrease weight by working directly on the thyroid gland. A study with mice noted its potential to increase thyroid hormones, which affect every cell in the body, and their efficiency results in a higher metabolism. Bacopa leaf extract may enhance the performance of the liver.

L-theanine: This is a common ingredient in green teas. It has the potential to rev the metabolism and help the body burn fat. According to PyshcologyToday.com and supporting research, L-theanine is also capable of reducing stress levels, potentially reducing cortisol levels in the body.

Chronically high cortisol levels can have serious consequences, inducing weight gain, especially in the abdominal area. L-theanine may possess mood-enhancing properties as well.

Ursolic Acid: This phytochemical may regulate ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates hunger. Regulating ghrelin helps to control appetite, which in turn encourages weight loss. According to a published 2012 study with mice, ursolic acid may promote muscle development and increase brown fat, thus, helping the body burn fat.

As lean muscle increases, the basal metabolic rate of the body also goes up. Studies revealed that ursolic acid may help with fatty liver disease and reduce obesity. Ursolic acid is in foods and herbs such as rosemary, holy basil, peppermint, lavender, thyme, oregano, apples, pears, bilberries, cranberries, pears, and prunes. 

Chrysin: This is known in the bodybuilding world for its aromatase inhibitor properties. Aromatase is an enzyme in the body capable of converting androgens (like testosterone) into estrogen.

While chrysin is mainly known for inhibiting testosterone conversion, some studies have noted its potential negative effect on thyroid hormones.

Chaga Mushroom: This mushroom is often consumed as tea but is available in pill and powder forms. Mainly researched for its potential cancer-preventing properties, the Chaga mushroom may act as an appetite suppressant, which also helps reduce cravings for certain foods.

Chaga mushroom is rich in many vitamins and minerals such as copper, zinc, magnesium, iron, potassium, vitamins B1, B2, B3, and D2.

Capsaicin: This active ingredient in hot chili peppers and some weight loss supplements may induce weight loss by reducing the appetite and cravings for certain foods. Capsaicin may also aid metabolism by giving it a much-needed boost to burn calories.

Saffron Extract: This spice studied for everything from Alzheimer’s to libido may also have weight loss benefits. The herb has an inherent ability to increase the secretion of a neurotransmitter called serotonin (a.k.a. the happy hormone). Serotonin improves mood and increases feelings of satiety while acting as an appetite suppressant simultaneously.


Final Thoughts

All these herbs and extracts influence the body in their own way. However, it should be noted that, while these supplements could offer some assistance with weight loss, there is no guarantee they will work for you. 

 

They demonstrated fat-burning effects in research studies on mice and humans. But keep in mind, the results may not be as significant as the companies who manufacture these supplements like to claim. There are no magic weight loss pills, and each supplement has different effects on every individual. 

 

Weight loss supplements are just that: supplements. The ingredients listed here are to supplement a healthy eating and fitness plan.

 

Regardless of the number of weight loss supplements taken, if specific issues do not get addressed that prevent these supplements from working to their capacity, it may result in wasted money.


If you are interested in taking weight loss supplements, be sure to discuss options with your doctor or a medical professional first. Just because an herbal supplement is natural, that doesn’t necessarily mean that it’s safe.


If you found this article helpful, would you consider sharing it? We’d greatly appreciate it!

 

Other References

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Green Tea

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EGCG Reduces Obesity and White Adipose Tissue Gain Partly Through AMPK Activation in Mice
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Taurine

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Green Coffee Bean Extract

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forskolin

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Coleus Forskohlii: Benefits and Uses; March 31, 2017; By Connie Shoemaker, ND; https://sanescohealth.com/blog/coleus-forskohlii-benefits-uses/

Synephrine

Gutiérrez-Hellín, J., Ruiz-Moreno, C. & Del Coso, J. Acute p-synephrine ingestion increases whole-body fat oxidation during 1-h of cycling at Fatmax. Eur J Nutr (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-02101-6; https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00394-019-02101-6#citeas

Stohs SJ. Safety, Efficacy, and Mechanistic Studies Regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and p-Synephrine. Phytother Res. 2017;31(10):1463‐1474. doi:10.1002/ptr.5879
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Synephrine; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synephrine

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The Definitive Guide to Synephrine Supplementation; Written by Michael Matthews; https://legionathletics.com/synephrine/#why-do-people-supplement-withsynephrine

How The Heck Do You Burn Off Stubborn Fat? (great explanation of alpha-2-receptors)
by: Shin Ohtake, Fitness & Fat-Loss Expert; Author of MAX Workouts, The Ultimate Lean Body Fitness Program
https://www.maxworkouts.com/articles/entry/how-the-heck-do-you-burn-off-stubborn-fat

This Supplement Can Help You Burn 42g of Fat in One Hour of Exercise

New Study: Burn 42g of Fat/Hour

How to Use Yohimbe for Optimal Fat Loss Results; January 06, 2020; https://www.prosupps.com/blogs/articles/how-to-use-yohimbe-for-optimal-fat-loss-results/#erid7656054

Yohimbe: Benefits, Uses and Side Effects; Written by Keith Pearson, PhD, RD on October 13, 2017; https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/yohimbe

Stubborn Fat Stack: Making Your Trouble Areas Disappear!; Derek Charlebois; July 23, 2019; https://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/beast51.htm

L Carnitine

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What’s the Difference Between L-Carnitine and Acetyl L-Carnitine?; By Amy Sunderman, MS, RD
https://www.swansonvitamins.com/blog/amy/what-is-the-difference-between-l-carnitine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine

Raspberry Ketones

Morimoto C, Satoh Y, Hara M, Inoue S, Tsujita T, Okuda H. Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone. Life Sci. 2005;77(2):194‐204.; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15862604/

Do Raspberry Ketones Really Work? A Detailed Review; Written by Kris Gunnars, BSc on November 6, 2018; https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/do-raspberry-ketones-work

Dr. Oz and Raspberry Ketones; June 1, 2012 (Volume 1, Issue 9); By: Lila Ahmed, Pharm.D. Candidate c/o 2013
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Irvingia Gabonensis or African mango

African Mango: What to Know About Irvingia Gabonensis; By Kathleen M. Zelman, MPH, RD, LD
https://www.webmd.com/diet/obesity/features/african-mango-supplements#1

Ngondi JL, Oben JE, Minka SR. The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon. Lipids Health Dis. 2005;4:12. Published 2005 May 25.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1168905/

The African Mango: Can Its Seeds Really Help You Lose Weight?; Office for Science and Society; Separating Sense from Nonsense
Joe Schwarcz PhD; 20 Mar 2017; https://www.mcgill.ca/oss/article/health-nutrition-you-asked/african-mango-can-its-seeds-really-help-you-lose-weight

Aframomum Melegueta (Grains of Paradise)

Sugita J, Yoneshiro T, Hatano T, et al. Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(4):733‐738; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23308394/

Sugita J, Yoneshiro T, Sugishima Y, et al. Daily ingestion of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract increases whole-body energy expenditure and decreases visceral fat in humans. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2014;60(1):22‐27. doi:10.3177/jnsv.60.22; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24759256/

YPOGLYCEAMIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AFRAMOMUM MELEGUETA LEAF ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MALE ALBINO RATS HYPOGLYCEAMIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AFRAMOMUM MELEGUETA LEAF ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MALE ALBINO RATS
T O Mojekwu, Yama Oshiozokhai, Sikiru Abiola Ojokuku

Garcinia

Nutraceuticals in Hepatic Diseases; Sharon M. Gwaltney-Brant, in Nutraceuticals, 2016; Garcinia cambogia
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/hydroxycitric-acid#:~:text=The%20active%20component%20of%20G,and%20decreases%20body%20weight%20gain.

Garcinia Cambogia: Safe for Weight Loss?; Reviewed by Melinda Ratini, DO, MS on October 06, 2019
https://www.webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/garcinia-cambogia-weight-loss

Hayamizu K, Ishii Y, Kaneko I, et al. Effects of garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) on visceral fat accumulation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2003;64(8):551‐567; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4053034/

Proposed biochemical action of HCA. HCA may block ATP-citrate lyase
Fig 2 – uploaded by George Burdock
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Proposed-biochemical-action-of-HCA-A-Acetyl-CoA-the-product-of-carbohydrate_fig1_8474803

Benefits of Garcinia Cambogia; https://www.patchmd.com/benefits-of-garcinia-cambogia.html

Sphaeranthus Indicus (a flower) and Garcinia Mangostana (herb):

What Is Meratrim, and Does It Work for Weight Loss?; Written by Kris Gunnars, BSc on July 26, 2019; https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/does-meratrim-work

Bacopa Leaf Extract

J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jul;81(2):281-5.; Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice.; Kar A1, Panda S, Bharti S.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12065164

Can Bacopa Monnieri Benefit Your Thyroid?; by Thyroid Information; Posted on April 1, 2017; Edit on April 4, 2017

Can Bacopa Monnieri Benefit Your Thyroid?

Bacopa Monnieri – Effects and benefits on the Thyroid Gland; Thyroid Advisor; https://thyroidadvisor.com/bacopa-monnieri-effects-benefits-thyroid-gland/

Sumathi, T & Devaraj, Niranjali. (2009). Effect of Bacopa monniera on liver and kidney toxicity in chronic use of opioids. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 16. 897-903. 10.1016/j.phymed.2009.03.005.

L- Theanine

l-Theanine prevents alcoholic liver injury through enhancing the antioxidant capability of hepatocytes.
Li G1, Ye Y, Kang J, Yao X, Zhang Y, Jiang W, Gao M, Dai Y, Xin Y, Wang Q, Yin Z, Luo L.; Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Feb;50(2):363-72; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22019691

Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Sep;28(9):1702-6.; Effects of theanine on alcohol metabolism and hepatic toxicity.
Sadzuka Y1, Inoue C, Hirooka S, Sugiyama T, Umegaki K, Sonobe T.; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16141543

Theanine; By Terri Mitchell; January 2006; http://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2006/1/report_theanine/page-01

What You Need to Know About L-theanine; Sleep better at night, feel relaxed during the day.
Posted Aug 29, 2017; https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/sleep-newzzz/201708/what-you-need-know-about-l-theanine

L-Theanine and Weight Loss: The Fast Fat Loss Benefits; https://www.4gauge.com/4g/l-theanine-and-weight-loss/

Ursolic Acid

Ursolic Acid Increases Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat and Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity, Glucose Intolerance and Fatty Liver Disease
Steven D. Kunkel, 1 , 2 Christopher J. Elmore, 1 Kale S. Bongers,; PLoS One. 2012; 7(6): e39332; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3379974/

Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018 May; 22(3): 235–248. Ursolic acid in health and disease; Dae Yun Seo, Sung Ryul Lee, Jun-Won Heo, Mi-Hyun No, Byoung Doo Rhee, Kyung Soo Ko, Hyo-Bum Kwak, and Jin Han; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5928337/

New Study: Two Weird Foods That Could Rebuild Muscle As You Age; by Christina Simonetti

Lifelong Muscle

Starving prostate cancer with what you eat: Apple peels, red grapes, turmeric; Date: June 6, 2017; Source: University of Texas at Austin
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170606112750.htm

Fat Fighting Is Part of the Apple’s Peel; By Ann Lukits; July 2, 2012; https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304830704577497111487022018

Ursolic acid causes the death of various types of breast cancer cells; https://foodforbreastcancer.com/news/ursolic-acid-causes-death-of-various-types-of-breast-cancer-cells

Chrysin

Balam FH, Ahmadi ZS, Ghorbani A. Inhibitory effect of chrysin on estrogen biosynthesis by suppression of enzyme aromatase (CYP19): A systematic review. Heliyon. 2020;6(3):e03557. Published 2020 Mar 7. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03557; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063143/#:~:text=In%20conclusion%2C%20the%20results%20of,of%20cancer%20cells%20as%20well.

Chrysin: Is It An Effective Aromatase Inhibitor?; By Ward Dean, MD; https://warddeanmd.com/chrysin-is-it-an-effective-aromatase-inhibitor/

Chrysin; Canadian Academy of Sports Nutrition.; https://www.caasn.com/chrysin.html

Chaga Mushroom; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center; https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/integrative-medicine/herbs/chaga-mushroom

Nine potential health benefits of chaga mushrooms
Medically reviewed by Debra Rose Wilson, Ph.D., MSN, R.N., IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT — Written by Zawn Villines on July 22, 2017; https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318527

Arata S, Watanabe J, Maeda M, et al. Continuous intake of the Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) aqueous extract suppresses cancer progression and maintains body temperature in mice. Heliyon. 2016;2(5):e00111. Published 2016 May 12.; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4946216/

Chaga Mushroom Evidence Review: Are the Benefits of Chaga Real?; February 13, 2019
https://neurogal.com/neuro-blog/2019/2/11/chaga-mushroom-evidence-review-are-the-benefits-of-chaga-real

Janssens PL, Hursel R, Martens EA, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Acute effects of capsaicin on energy expenditure and fat oxidation in negative energy balance. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e67786. Published 2013 Jul 2. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067786; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3699483/

Zheng J, Zheng S, Feng Q, Zhang Q, Xiao X. Dietary capsaicin and its anti-obesity potency: from mechanism to clinical implications. Biosci Rep. 2017;37(3):BSR20170286. Published 2017 May 11.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5426284/

5 Metabolism-Boosting Foods; By Lisa Lillien Updated on June 24, 2019; https://www.verywellfit.com/metabolism-boosting-foods-3865913

Can Cayenne Pepper Help You Lose Weight?; Medically reviewed by Natalie Butler, RD, LD — Written by Evlin Symon and Emily Cronkleton — Updated on September 2, 2018
https://www.healthline.com/health/food-nutrition/cayenne-pepper-for-weight-loss

Saffron for Emotional Health; Research shows some strong benefits for brain and mood;Posted Jan 10, 2016; Peter Bongiorno ND, LAc
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/inner-source/201601/saffron-emotional-health

Saffron Powerfully Modulates Anxiety and Depression; Trial pits saffron against antidepressant medication
By Mark Davis, ND; https://www.naturalmedicinejournal.com/journal/2016-12/saffron-powerfully-modulates-anxiety-and-depression

More specifically, a saffron extract might inhibit serotonin reuptake in synapses. Inhibiting synaptic serotonin reuptake keeps serotonin in the brain longer, thereby enhancing its positive effects while combating depression.; Siddiqui MJ, Saleh MSM, Basharuddin SNBB, et al. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.): As an Antidepressant. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2018;10(4):173‐180. doi:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_83_18; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266642/#:~:text=More%20specifically%2C%20a%20saffron%20extract,positive%20effects%20while%20combating%20depression.

HEALTH BENEFITS OF SAFFRON; MOODAUGUST 2, 2016BY BRAINMD LIFE; https://brainmd.com/blog/4-surprising-health-benefits-of-saffron/

Saffron spices up mental health research; by Cahli Samata, Particle; https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-04-saffron-spices-mental-health.html

The Health Benefits of Saffron; Learn if this spice can boost your mood and help with weight management; By Cathy Wong Medically reviewed by Richard Fogoros, MD
https://www.verywellfit.com/health-benefits-of-saffron-extract-89511#:~:text=When%20used%20as%20a%20weight,and%20the%20associated%20weight%20gain.

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